What does the word muscle mean?
According to Diemerbroeck, Douglass, Chaussier, &c., This etymon is the more probable. Muscles have been divided into those of Animal life or of the life of relation- voluntary muscles- which execute movements under the influence of the will; as the muscles of the limbs, head, trunk, &c., and into those of organice life- involuntary muscles- which contract under the influence of certain special stimuli; as the heart, fleshy fibres of the stomach, &c. Mixed muscles are those which belong partly to each of these division; - as the muscles of respiration; the sphincters, &c. Muscles that act in opposition to each other are called antagonists; thusk every extensor has a flexor for an antagonist, and conversely. Muscles that concur in the same action are termed congenerous. The muscles present numerous varieties in form, size, situation, use, &c., and have been divided, by some, into long, broad, and short. Each of these divisions comprises simple and compound muscles. Simple or rectilinear muscles have all their fibres in a similar direction, and only one body- as the Sartorius, Pronator quadratus, &c. Compound muscles are those which have only one belly and several tendons, as the flexors of the fingers and toes; or several bellies and several tendons, - as the biceps flexor cubiti, sacro-lumbalis, &c. To the compound muscles belong, also, the radiated muscles. Their fibres set out from a common centre, and are arranged like the radii or a circle; - such are the diaphragm, iliacus, temporal, &c. Pennated or Penniform Muscles. Their fibres are arranged in two rows, which are united at a median line, at greater or less angles; nearly as the feathers are inserted into a quil. The palmaris longus is one of these. Semi-penniform muscles; their fibres are oblique, as in the last case; but they are inserted only o one side of the tendon. Hollow Muscles are, - the heart, intestines, urinary bladder, &c. Much difference has existed in the enumeration of muscles. Some authors reckon them at upwards of 400. Chaussier admits only 368. The greater part of them are in pairs. Very few are oygous. Muscles have been variously named. 1. According to their uses, as diaphram, buccinator, extensors, flexors, adductors, abductors, levators, depressors, &c. 2. According to their position as interspinales, interossei, subclavius, poplitaeus, anconeus, cubitalis, iliacus, temporalis, &c. 3. Accoding to their shape, as trapezius, splenius, lumbricalis, serratus, digastric, deltoid, scalenus, rhomboides, &c. 4. According to their dimensions, as pectoralis major, rectus capitis anticus major, pectoralis minor, glutaeus maximus, medius, and minimus. 5. According to their direction, as obliquus abdominis, transversalis abdominis, rectus femoria, rectus abominis, &c. 6. According to their composition, as semi-membranosus, semi-tendinosus, complexus, &c. 7. According to their attachments, or the different points of the skeleton with which they are connected by means of tendons or aponeuroses; as sterno-cleido-mastoideus, sterno-hyoideus, &c. On this is grounded the nomenclature of M. Dumas, and that of Chaussier. The end of the muscle, which adheres to the most fixed part, is usually called the origin or head, ( F.) Tete; and that which adheres to the more moveable part, the insertion or tail, ( F.) Queue; the intervening part or body of the muscle being called the venter or belly, Venter mus'culi, Me'dium mus'culi, ( F.) Ventre: hence the names gastrocnemii, digastricus, biceps, and triceps; according as they have two bellies, two or three heads, &c. Muscles are formed, - 1. Essentially of the muscular or fleshy fibre, ( see Muscular Fibre.) 2. Or Areolar tissue, which unites together the fibres. This areolar tissue is not very visible between the fine and loose fibres; but becomes more so, when they united in more considerable fasciculi. It forms, moreover, to each muscle, an external envelope, which unites it to the neighbouring parts, and admits of its motion. This envelope was formerly called Tu'nica pro'priar musculo'rum. 3. Of Arteries. These proceed from neighbouring trunks, and are, generally, very large. Their size and number are always in proportion to the bulk of the muscle. With the exception of some viscera, as the lungs and the kidneys, there are few organs that receive as much blood as the muscles. 4. Of Veins. They follow the same course in the muscles as the arteries. Bichat asserts that they are generally devoid of valves. 5. Of Lymphatics. Of these we know little, and cannot easily follow them between the fleshy fibres. 6. Of Nerves. These are numerous, and of different sizes. They almost all, proceed from the encephalon; some, however, issue from ganglions, and accompany the arteries. In general, they penetrate the fleshy tissue along with the vessels, with which they are closely united. After they have entered the muscles, they divide and subdivide until they are lost sight of.
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