What does the word tuberculosis mean?
A specific infectious disease produced by the Bacillus tuberculosis, and characterized by the formation of peculiar malignant granulation tumors( see Tubercle) which tend to undergo caseous degeneration, to spread continuously in loco, and to be disseminated in remote parts of the body through the lymph-passages. The caseating tubercles break down, producing ulcers on a free surface, and, in the interior of organs, cavities filled with tissue-detritus and a liquid resembling pus( vomica, cold abscess). T. is communicated especially by the sputum containing tubercle bacilli. T. may be limited to a single part( evincing a special preference for parts containing lymphoid tissue), and then usually runs a chronic course often marked by long intermissions. If, however, an important organ( brain, lung, larynx) is involved, death may occur early from the direct injury of vital parts. In most cases of t., besides the infection with the tubercle bacillus, a secondary infection with streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci, and the bacilli of putrefaction occurs, producing more or less diffuse suppuration. In other cases a reactive plastic inflammation occurs about the tuberculous focus, thus causing its encapsulation and preventing any dissemination of the infection. General t., ( Acute miliary t.), in which a number of organs are affected, usually runs rapidly fatal course with irregular fever and cerebral symptoms, sometimes resembling those of cerebro-spinal meningitis. The chief forms of t. are: ( 1) T. of the lymphatic glands, bones, and joints, occurring especially in childhood, and constituting the disease known as scrofula; producing cheesy suppurating glands, caries and cold abscesses, white swelling( strumous arthritis including hip disease), and rhinitis. ( 2) T. of the serous membranes, especially the peritoneum( producing the chronic fatal tuberculous peritonitis) and the meninges( tuberculous meningitis). ( 3) T. of the lungs( pulmonary phthisis), characterized by the formation of caverns, with chronic broncho-pneumonia or by fibroid pneumonia. ( 4) T. of the larynx( laryngeal phthisis) marked by ulceration and infiltration of the vocal cords and other structures. ( 5) T. of the intestines, producing ulceration, especially in the lymphoid tissue, the ulcers tending to spread transversely, and sometimes by cicatrization causing stricture. ( 6) T. of the kidney and bladder. ( 7) T. of the suprarenal capsules( see Addison’s disease). ( 8) T. of the skin, the most common form of which is lupus( see also Dissection tubercle). The SYMPTOMS of t. are partly local, from the destruction it produces; e. g., cough, dyspnoea, purulent expectoration, and haemoptysis in pulmonary and laryngeal t., diarrhoea in intestinal t., pyuria and haematuria in renal and cystic t., delirium, headache, coma, and paralysis in meningeal t. The general symptoms, occurring whenever the disease is not strictly localized, and particularly when there is secondary infection, are septic( hectic fever, night-sweats, and progressive emaciation). TREATMENT: removal of tuberculous growths where accessible; disinfection( e. g., by inhalations of creosote); creosote or guaiacol internally; change of climate; nourishing fatty diet with cod-liver oil, the hypophosphites, strychnine, and other tonics. Animal t. comprises( 1) true t. ( Common or Mammalian t.), produced as in man by the tubercle bacillus and affecting cattle, horses, swine, goats, rabbits, guinea-pigs, monkeys, dogs( only slightly), and parrots; ( 2) Avian t., due to Bacillus tuberculosis avium( see Chicken-tuberculosis); ( 3) various affections, marked by miliary lesions like those of t. and due to different microbes( Zoogloeic t., etc.; see Pseudotuberculosis). T. aspergillina, pneumonoconiosis aspergillina( see Aspergillus). Cestodian t., a disease of cattle produced by the excessive multiplication of cysticerci in them.
Usage examples for tuberculosis
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